Monday, January 20, 2020

House on Mango Street Essay -- Book Review Poverty Education Essays

House on Mango Street The story; themes; and implications for teaching from the House on Mango Street come from showing how today’s society has low expectations for those in the inner city. This book can be used to show what inner life is like and how these people are looked at and treated by others in society. Using this book in the classroom can be beneficial because many people have negative preconceptions of what life is really like as a minority. I know that I think of inner city schools and the students that attend them as underprivileged and don’t hold them to the same standards as I do others from smaller more suburban towns. Going to Milwaukee this semester has been a culture shock and I think that reading this book compliments are experiences doing our observation and participation. This story is about a young Spanish girl, Esperanza, who is growing up in the Latino section of Chicago. She is embarrassed of where she lives because of the poor conditions of her house, the mice that run freely around her, and the neighborhood she comes from. Her neighborhood is inner city living where the cops are looked at as the bad people in the neighborhood, homeless people sleep in the streets, and she has seen many other bad things including rape and abuse. Esperanza struggles to fit into her new home because she has moved so often. She can’t find and keep friends. Esperanza doesn’t want to fit though because all she can think about is getting out of there and having the white picket fence in the suburbs someday. She does not consider her house on Mango Street her home. It is more of a temporary dwelling until she can get out of there. She works hard at a young age to help her family with the money problems. The story is also about finding some good friends in her new home and her adventures with them. The most interesting themes, issues and characters are Esperanza and her dreams of getting out of the house on Mango Street. This book keeps you captured by telling stories of how she wants to get out of the city and off Mango Street. They are all very interesting and this is what makes the book so fun to read. Making friends and keeping them is also an important issue in this young girls life because she moves so often. I think these things are interesting because I can relate to wanting to get out of where I was when I ... ...go Street. It is eye opening and after taking this class and others like it, I look at these books in a different light. This book seemed like an accurate portrayal of what life must have been like for this girl and I could tell I was emotionally into it. I could feel her pain even though I have not gone through these things first hand as she has. It was a sad story but I think it got the point across without saying â€Å"feel sorry for me because I live in the inner city.† This book can be used with students to show that people from diverse populations are just like you and me. They just want to live a healthy and fulfilling life with friends and family. Most of them are trying to make a better life for themselves any way possible. This will help my students see others as equals and not as people of lesser value. I think it can also be used with inner city children to show that nobody is going to feel sorry for them and if they want a better life than they have to earn it themselves. Nobody is going to give them free hand outs all their lives and if they want something bad enough then they have to work for it. This book can be a powerful tool in teaching that to students.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Organisation Study

INTRODUCTION The Organization Study undertaken as a part of the curriculum has completed at Handicraft Development Corporation in Trivandrum. This study provides the opportunity to expose the student to an organization and its operational conditions. This study also aims at having a better understanding of various departments and its function. Organization study helps to know overall functions of a concern. This is a detailed study of the organization, product profile, service profile, organizational hierarchy, various departments and their functions.This study proved to be fruitful by familiarizing us to the organization and at the same time it also helped us to create practical awareness. The Handicraft Development Corporation is to be selected for undergoing the organizational study for the following reasons: †¢Trivandrum Handicraft Development Corporation is the head office. †¢In this organization has goodwill in general public. †¢Handicrafts have a major role in T ourism Sector. 1. 2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY †¢To understand the flow of authority and responsibility in the different departments of the organization. To assess the overall efforts adopted by the company in order to satisfy the consumer demand. †¢Find out the overall services of the organization to the customers. 1. 3 METHODOLOGY Primary data was collected by conducting formal and informal interviews with the employees and by observation. Secondary data was collected through the company documents, magazines, books and by the use of internet. 1. 4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study is intended to attain a firsthand experience of the overall running of an organization.A detailed analysis of each of the activity performed by the departments is beyond the scope of the study. It also provides a chance to see the practical constrains faced by the managers while putting theory in to practical. 1. 5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY †¢Time was Insufficient to the completion of the project. â € ¢It has chances of guarded and biased response from the reliable source. †¢Busy time schedule of the employees. 1. 6 CHAPTERS Chapter 1: Introduction Introduction chapter contains the objective, methodology, scope of the study, limitation of the organization study and cauterization. Chapter 2: Industry Profile In this chapter includes industry profile of Handicraft Development in india. Chapter 3: Company Profile Company profile includes the complete profile of the organization. Strategic indent and also innovative products are included. Chapter 4: Organization Structure Chapter 5: Analysis Objective wise Detailed and complete analysis is to be included in this chapter. This chapter mainly analysis secondary data has been collected. Chapter 6: SWOT Analysis In this chapter includes the findings from the analysis and give proper suggestions for recovering the find problems.Proper solutions are given for the findings and concluded with the solutions. Chapter 7: Findings, conc lusion and suggestions INDUSTRIAL PROFILE Handicrafts industry is a major area of employment generation in the State. Coconut Shell carving, straw picture making, cane work, bamboo and reed weaving, ivory carving, bell metal casting, screw pine and mat weaving are the major handicrafts in the State. Handicrafts Development Corporation and Artisans Development Corporation are the major promotional agencies of the industry.The Handicrafts Development Corporation is procuring and marketing handicraft products through its 19 Kairali emporia spread all over India. Kerala's traditional handicrafts varieties are a class of its own. The artisans of Kerala carve in wood, design in jewellery and makes idols in metal. The gifted artisans makes beautiful idols of Lord Krishna, Ganesh, Goddess Saraswathi, Lakshmi etc. in sandal wood ,elephants in rose wood and other art works in varieties of other woods. The life size models of Kathakali and the models depicting boat race of Kerala are Kerala's own master pieces.The idols of Lord Nataraja in dancing pose and the various lamps (vilakku) which are very essential for every ceremony of malayalees. Aranmula kannadi is another traditional art work in bell metal. The artisans of Kerala are at their best in making screwpine woven articles, beautiful lamp shades and other articles from bamboo reeds. A variety of products ranging from buttons to flower vase out of coconut shell. Kora mats are very popular and are used for prayer and sleep. Articles made out of buffalo horn and Kathakali masks, straw pictures etcare some of the popular items of Kerala.Handicrafts based on various kinds of wood, coconut, palm etc. are major attractions. The State agencies for the development of handicrafts industry include Handicrafts Co-operative Apex Society, Artisans Development Corporation, Bamboo Corporation and Handicrafts Development Corporation. 2. 1 HANDICRAFT INDUSTRY Handicraft, more precisely expressed as artisanic handicraft, sometimes al so called artisanry, is a type of work where useful and decorative devices are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools.It is a traditional main sector of craft. Usually the term is applied to traditional means of making goods. The individual artisanship of the items is a paramount criterion; such items often have cultural and/or religious significance. Items made by mass production or machines are not handicraft goods. Usually, what distinguishes the term handicraft from the frequently used category arts and crafts is a matter of intent: handicraft items are intended to be used, worn, etc, having a purpose beyond simple decoration.Handicraft goods are generally considered more traditional work, in traditional non-industrial and transitional societies created as a somewhat more necessary part of daily life, while arts and crafts implies more of a hobby pursuit and a demonstration/perfection of a creative technique. In Britain in the late nineteenth century, however, the Arts and Crafts Movement was not a matter of hobbies, but of creating useful as well as creative work for people, using natural materials and traditional techniques. In practical terms, the categories have a great deal of overlap. . 2 HANDICRAFTS IN THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT The history of handicrafts in areas generally now comprising India and Pakistan is an old saga. To peep in to the traces of Indian handicrafts we need to go back almost 5000 years. The first references to handicrafts in the Indian subcontinent can be found from the Indus Valley Civilization (3000 BC-1700 BC). The craft tradition in India has revolved around religious beliefs, local needs of the commoners, as well as the special needs of the patrons and royalty, along with an eye for foreign and domestic trade.These craft traditions have withstood the ravages of time and numerous foreign invasions and continue to flourish till date owing to the assimilative nature of Indian culture and broadmindedness of the handi craftsmen to accept and use new ideas. The Indus valley civilization had a rich craft tradition as well as a high degree of technical excellence in the field of pottery making, sculpture (metal, stone and terracotta), jewelry, weaving, etc. A lot of material information from excavations at Harappa, Mohen-jo-daro, etc. substantiates the craft tradition of the Indus valley civilization.The craftsmen not only catered to all the local needs but surplus items were sent to ancient Arabian cultures via ancient sea routes. Handicraft is the art of creating products using raw and indigenous materials. It develops the skills and creative interests of students towards a particular craft or trade. The basic training provided in a specific craft prepares the students to become competent craftsmen and artists who can contribute to the establishment of cottage industries, thus contributing to the economic growth of the country. 2. 2. 1 STATE EMPIRESThe concept of state was ushered by the rise of t he Mauryan Empire in the 3rd century BC. It is said that during the time of Ashoka, 84,000 stupas were built in India, including the world famous Sanchi Stupa, which has beautiful stone carving and relief work done on it. Numerous sculptures from Bharhut, Mathura, Amravati, Vaishali, Sanchi, etc. show female figures adorned with an array of jewelry, which continues to inspire contemporary jewelry making. The iron pillars of Vaishali (Bihar) and Delhi, created during the time of Emperor Ashoka, are a marvel in the field of metallurgy. 2. 2. 2 POST MAURYAN AGEThe period between the 1st century BC and the 1st century AD was a period of political turmoil as a result of foreign invasions from central Asia. The impact of these intrusions can be seen in the Buddhist sculptures from Taxila, Begram, Bamiyan, Swat valley, etc. which show a high degree of Greek influence. The depiction of Buddha, having curly hair and wearing draperies, until date is the result of this Greek influence. The scu lpture of the Kushan king Kanishka from this period depicting him wearing leather boots and a heavy warm coat amply reflects the influence of the central Asian Culture on Indian craftsmanship.Jewelry, sculpture, textile making, leather products, metal working, etc. were the main handicrafts that inherited these foreign influences and assimilated them in accordance with the Indian milieu. 2. 2. 3 GUPTA AGE The Gupta (AD 320-647) age is referred to as the classical period in Indian history. The points in the field of craft include the rock cut temples of Ellora and the Ajanta murals. These murals give us a realistic view of the lifestyle of that time. The craftsmen of this period, under royal patronage excelled in jewelry making, woodcarving, sculpture, stone carving and weaving. 2. . 4 MEDIEVAL INDIA The Medieval period of Indian history in the context of handicrafts showed a marked shift from north India to the Deccan and southern parts of the country, though the handicraftsmen unde r the Delhi Sultanate period flourished in the field of pottery, weaving, wood carving, metal working, jewelry, etc. The contribution of the Cholas and the Vijaynagar Empire in the field of bronze sculpture, silk weaving, jewelry, temple carving is beyond parallel. The fine example of stone carving from central India can be seen in the form of the Khajuraho Temples, built by the Chandelas.Rich and ornate wood and stone carving can be found in medieval temple of Jagannath at Puri in Orissa. 2. 3 LIST OF HANDICRAFT TRADES †¢Assemblage– collage in three dimensions †¢Beadwork ?Bone carving buffalo, camel, elephant bone carving. ?Cabinet making ?Chip carving †¢Collage possibly involving seeds, fabric, paper, photographs and/or found objects †¢Crochet †¢Embossed aluminum or silver †¢Gardening †¢Buffalo horn carving, Rhino horn carving. †¢Knitting †¢Lath art †¢Parquetry †¢Metalwork †¢Mosaic †¢Needlework †¢Pottery and Ceramics †¢Pressed flower craft — uses real flowers and leaves †¢Puppetry †¢Quilting – also reference Quilt and Art quilts Saddlemaking †¢Scale model †¢Sewing †¢Shoemaking †¢Spinning †¢Stained glass †¢Wood burning, carving, turning, working 2. 4 INDIAN HANDICRAFTS INDUSTRY India is one of the important suppliers of handicrafts to the world market. The Indian handicrafts industry is highly labour intensive cottage based industry and decentralized, being spread all over the country in rural and urban areas. Numerous artisans are engaged in crafts work on part-time basis. The industry provides employment to over six million artisans (including those in carpet trade), which include a large number of women and people belonging to the weaker sections of the society.In addition to the high potential for employment, the sector is economically important from the point of low capital investment, high ratio of value addition, and h igh potential for export and foreign exchange earnings for the country. Although exports of handicrafts appear to be sizeable, India’s share in world imports is miniscule. It is a sector that is still not completely explored from the point of view of hidden potential areas. India, a country with 28 states and 18 languages and more than 1500 dialects offers an enormous range of handicrafts from each of the states.Major centres in Uttar Pradesh are Moradabad also known as the â€Å"Peetalnagari† (City of Brass), Saharanpur for its wooden articles, Ferozabad for Glass. The North Western state of Rajasthan has to offer the famous Jaipuri quilts, Bagru and Sanganer printed textiles and wooden and wrought iron furniture from Jodhpur. The coastal state of Gujarat comes with embroidered articles from Kutch. Narsapur in Andhra Pradesh is famous for its Lace and Lace goods. But this is only a small part of the total product range. India offers much more. 2. 5 HANDICRAFTS CLASSIF ICATIONHandicrafts are classified into two categories: 1. Articles of everyday use 2. Decorative items The craftsmen use different media to express their originality. The diversity of the handicrafts is expressed on textiles, metals – precious and semi-precious, wood, precious and semi-precious stones, ceramic and glass. 2. 5. 1 TEXTILE BASED HANDICRAFTS: Hand printed textiles including block and screen printing, batik, kalamkari (hand printing by pen) and bandhani (tie and die) are used in products ranging from bed-covers to sheets, dress material to upholstery and tapestry.The famous embroidered articles of silk and cotton often embellished with mirrors, shells, beads, and metallic pieces are also found in India. Embroidery is done too on leather, felt and velvet etc. This segment of the industry accounts for almost half a million strong employment in addition to a large number of designers, block makers, weavers and packers involved in the trade. 2. 5. 2 CLAY, METAL AND JE WELLERY: Brass, copper, bronze, bell metals are used for a variety of wares and in a variety of finishes.Scintillating ornaments are available in a wide range of patterns, styles and compositions. Made from precious metals, base metals, precious and semi-precious stones; these ornaments have traditional as well as modern styles. 2. 5. 3 WOODWORK: Wooden articles in India range from the ornately carved to the absolutely simple. One can find toys, furniture, decorative articles, etc. bearing the art and individuality of the craftsman. India is known particularly for its lacquered wood articles. 2. 5. 4 STONE CRAFT: The intricately carved stoneware made of marble, alabaster or soapstone, etc. inlaid with semiprecious stones carry on the heritage of Indian stone crafts. 2. 5. 5 GLASS AND CERAMIC: Glass and ceramic products are a fast upcoming segment in the handicrafts from India. The age-old production process of mouth-blowing the glass instills a nostalgic feeling. The varied shapes o f ceramic and glass in a number of colours, would appeal to Western aesthetics while retaining the Indian touch. 2. 5. 6 CRAFT CONCENTRATION AREAS: A wide range of handicrafts are produced all over Indian artmetalware / EPNS ware, wood carvings and other wooden artwares, imitation jewellery, andprinted textiles, shawls as artwares, embroidered goods, lace and lace goods, toys, dolls, crafts made of leather, lacquerware, marble crafts etc. Although it is difficult to limit a specific place for the particular craft, the following places are listed for their particular crafts. Art metal ware:Moradabad, Sambhal, Aligarh, Jodhpur, Jaipur, Delhi, Rewari, Thanjavur, Madras, Mandap, Beedar, Kerala & Jagadhari, Jaselmer Wooden Art wares:Saharanpur, Nagina, Hoshiarpor, Srinagar, Amritsar, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Jagdalpur, Bangalore, Mysore, Chennapatna, Madras, Kerala & Behrampur (WB)Hand printed Textiles & Scarves:Amroha, Jodhpur, Jaipur, Farrukhabad, Sagru & Sanganer Embroidered goods:Kutch (Guja rat), Jaisalmer, Baroda, Lucknow, Jodhpur, Agra, Amritsar, Kullu, Dharmshala / Chamba & Srinagar Marble & Soft Stone Crafts:Agra, Madras, Baster, Jodhpur Papier Mache Crafts:Kashmir, Jaipur Terracotta:Agra, Madras, Baster, Jodhpur Zari & Zari Goods:Rajasthan, Madras, Baster Imitation Jewelry::Delhi, Moradabad, Sambhal, Jaipur, Kohima (Tribal) Artistic Leather Goods:lndore, Kolhapur, Shanti Niketan (WB) Organisation Study CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT I have taken up this project work as a part of my degree in ‘Bachelor of Business Management Course, so to relate the theoretical studies with that of the practical work done in the organization. I have done my project work in the Calicut tile co. In 1879 the Calicut tile co. was incorporated and the circumstance leading to the information of the company is narrated under. The co. was started in 1878 at feroke; the town of clay industries. The founder of the co. was Mr. Soma Sundharan Chettiyar, the great millionaire from Ceylon.And then company was taken over by Mr. V. S. Nadarasa Mudhaliyar from Mr. Soma Sundhara chettiyar. In 1982 the present management takes the co. now there are 8 partners for the co. and mainly two partners are managing the co. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY * To study the general organizational functions and various department of the company. * To understand the growth of tile industry in India. * To study the production department and its performance. * To study the performance of the organization. * To suggest measures for the development of the CTCMETHODOLOGY A report on the descriptive study conducted at the calicut Tile co. , Feroke, Kozhikode is a project work that depends heavily on data collection particularly through observation the source of data are primary and secondary PRIMARY SOURCES * Observation * Consolation with the managers of various departments like production, HR etc. SECONDARY DATA * Report from various departments. * Report from other external magazines and internet. * Policy manuals. LIMITATION * The major constraint was the duration of the study was only 21 days. Couldn’t spend much time with top executives because of their busy schedule. * Due to absences and hesitation to talk openly by the employees it was difficult to collect accurate data. CHAPTER II INDUSTRIAL PROFILE INDUSTRIAL PROFILE Shelter is one of the basic requirements of man. C lay is one of the cheapest raw materials to satisfy this basic requirement of man. For a very long time man has been using clay for building purpose. Clay is basically an administrative mineral with an exclusive property of mould ability in the presence of water embankments etc.After reinforcement with straw, coir, fibers, bamboo, splinters, of woods sharing. It was rather accidental observation that clay when subjected to heating (firing) developed red color along with high strength and stability. Development of this process led to the production of clay products. In South India the German Basel Mission has performed a very important role in developing roofing tile industry or the Mangalore pattern roofing tiles. In the present scenario, roofing tiles have become a vital part of housing construction activity.By the end of 60’s most of the house used roofing tiles fur their houses. The last decade of the century however showed more interest towards concrete roofs and tile mar ket was down, however it again picked up business as decorative tile walls and floor tiles are in great demand now. The Latin word tegula and its French derivative tile mean quite precisely a roof tile of baked clay. The English tile is less precise, for it can in addition be used of any kind of earthenware slab applied to any surface of a building.The word ‘ceramics’ comes from the Greek word ‘keramos’ meaning pottery: it is related to an old Sanskrit root meaning to burn but was primarily used to mean ‘burnt stuff’ The demand for tile is thus improving when compared to the previous years; other clay products are also gaining importance in the market. However some of the tile manufacturing companies have reached saturation stage of its sales. They have to make changes in overall system of production and distribution to enhance the sales THE INDUSTRY IN KERALARoofing tile industry in India has an age of almost 150 years. In India Mangalore patt ern roofing tile factory was first established in the year 1865 by Basel Mission (German Missionaries) who copied the pattern of French tiles as in Marseilles. However first tile factory in Kerala was set up in the year 1844 by German Missionaries and it was named as â€Å"Common Wealth Trust Limited† or â€Å"COMTRUST†. Hundreds of factories came in to existence in South West cost of the country. Since then the industry has completed approximately one and quarter century of useful service to country.The numerous rivers and backwaters of Kerala provided cheap transport and so it is quite natural that a number of factories have opened at Kollam, Calicut, Trissur and alluva. Thus employment was generated. The abundance of clay was the other factor which contributed for rapid expansion of tile industry in this part of state A review of growth of tile industry in Kerala would suggest the following stages of development. These stages are * Period of First World War * Inter war period * The post second war period Towards the end of 19th century the pioneer factory at Kollam and Calicut was established.The pros iteration of tile factories, especially in Trissur may be considered as the second stage in the development of tile industry in Kerala. It’s considered that third stage is the period which small entrepreneurs became conscious of quality and started introducing machineries. This is partially due to the development of local engineering industry. As a result of mechanization could be implemented at a faster rate. The factories established in the first stage of the development in Calicut district was conceived of superior quality due to better technological process and uality control techniques The second stage of development witnessed a rapid growth in the number of tile factories mainly in trissur district. Local availability of quality clay and large managerial returns for the investment can be probable reasons for such a change. Their work ing started almost as a collage industry and not many changes has taken place as the time passed. The technological advancement that has taken place in the other industry has made no impact on the tile industry.The only forward step that have taken in the replacement of mechanical process is by replacing press, which they could increase the production capacity to 2 to 2. 5 times in an average. Even that change is yet to come in Kollam district. In a large number of units intermittent kilns are still use where high rate of fuel consumption is observed. In Trissur area majority of units have started on a small scale and number of chambers of kiln are limited. But subsequent introduction of revolving press has necessitated increasing the capacity and few more champers was added PROLEMS FACED BY CLAY INDUSTRYFor the last few decades the company has enjoyed a very inscriptive market in the country especially in the Southern states. In olden days industry was in Kerala and South Kerala, d istricts of Karnataka States. However conditions have completely different now. Tile factory have mushroomed through the country with much encouragement and support from the respective Government. The old traditional markets are fast dwindling and will soon disappear altogether in the very near future. Even manufacturing good clay-building material to cater to local markets is also having many problems.The company has to face keen completion from manufactures of concrete blocks and locally available. Late rite stones which are now mechanically cut and finished and are being sold at very low rate in the markets when compared to clay bricks. Apart from these, the main critical problems faced by the industry are the non-availability of good quality clays. Moreover there are environmental and ecological problems faced by tile industry and which are bound to de-stabilize the manufacturing operations consequently lead to loss of production in the year to come.Firewood, the fuel required f or the industry is also becoming scared with the present forest policy of the government and at present industry has to depend on plantation firewood like rub wood and other alternative fuels, for firing their kilns. The demand for roofing tile is steadily on the degrees because of the change in lifestyle of the people. While in olden days people used to construct houses by using timbers, the present tendency is to go for roofs. This has drastically affected the demand for Mangalore roofing tiles.If the industry is to survive man publicity has to be given for the products manufactured by the industry, enlightening the advantage of using Mangalore tiles over stopped concrete roofs which would have a good thermal insulation and also increase the life of these structures. While on the other hand, the industry is suffered with few problems relating to raw materials, environment etc. On the other hand there is likely to be a slump in the market for clay product brought out of industry. T he situation has to be analyzed and steps taken to meet the challenges, in light of these numerous problems being controlled by the tile industry.It is necessary that, government should take steps and try to solve the problems of this industry, which is one of the labor intensive industries in India CHAPTETR III COMPANY Profile COMPANY PROFILE| NAME| Calicut Tile Company| MANAGING PARTNER| Mr. MuhammadMr. M. A Abdhul Azeez| YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT| 1878| BANKERS| S. B. T Palayam| FINISHED PRODUCTS| Roofing tilesFlooring tilesBricksVentilator bricks| BRAND NAME| Queens Brand| MAIN MARKET| Tamil NaduKarnataka| NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES| Around 300| GENERAL MANAGER| K. M. Salman| The Calicut Tile Company is the pioneer of clay manufacturers in India.It is started way back in the year 1878. It’s still honored as the ‘first among the best of tiles company ’situated near the historical sea fort of Calicut at Feroke ,the companies name is indelibly printed in the industrial his tory of the company. CTC was founded by Mr. Somasundharam Chettiar a great millionaire from Ceylon. At first only roofing tiles were produced due to non-availability of better raw materials and machines. CTC was taken up by Mr. Nadaraja Mudhaliar. They constructed new building and purchased new machineries for producing more roofing tiles. The company becomes famous by the middle of 1970’s.Now the company is family owned partnership. The company was taken by the present owners in 1982. Providing a profitable as well as a beautiful alternative to concrete roofing, the company re-defined the aesthetic concepts about buildings, with its high quality classy QUEEN BRAND terracotta products unique in its stunning varieties of products. QUEEN BRAND is not just a brand name in the market but a trendsetter, leveraging the expertise earn through a legacy of more than 100 years experience. We have fetched big shares in Bahrain, UK, and Qatar markets apart from the domestic ones.The firs t company to bring a lot of innovative tile products, we the CTC has been a revolution through centuries. QUALITY STANDARDS CTC have been awarded the ISO certification recently by Moody International, an US based quality certification of great repute. A daring visionary behind the terracotta revolution, the company imparted geographical significance to Feroke which later came to be known as cradle of clay tile industry In a world that is Turing rapidly to techno friendly, CTC offer an alternative –bio friendly environment where you can inhale life, appealing to your eyes and soothing to your souls.QUEEN BRAND tile products promise you a world of endless imaginations. The most accepted eco-friendly, cost effective and aesthetically pleasing solution to home roofing and floorings, these classy clay products have by now earned International fame and recognition. Tested weather proof and water proof QUEEN BRAND terracotta tiles appear in a range of models applicable to floorings, roofing and ceiling sand as ventilator bricks and building blocks. Producing tiles with quality that confirms to standards set has been the aim of CTC and all its endeavors have been to this end.It’s a tradition that keeps pace with the changing world and changing needs. CAPACITY Presently the company have around 300 employees where 230 of them are permanent and have an annual production of more than 85 lakhs, the company was equipped with excavator, mixed high speed roller, number of revolving press etc for manufacturing tiles and Hoffman Kiln, one with 28 champers and other with 24 champers and each champers having a capacity of 3000 tiles. Now the company had acquired modern technologies for manufacturing tiles. Chain conveyer system was introduced for conveying wet tiles from the press to the kiln and to stock yard.A separate section for manufacturing ventilator bricks and hourdies was erected NATURE OF BUSINESS CARRIED OUT Nature of business means type of business being carried out. It includes the products of the company and weather the business is manufacturing or sales. If it is a manufacturing company what kind of products are being produced in the company. If the company’s main function is sales what it sells and how it is being sold, that is weather it does a wholesale or retail business The CTC does both manufacturing and sales. It produces all sorts of building material made of clay.Its products includes the following ROOFING TILES FLOORING TILES VENTILATOR BRICKS BUILDING BLOCKS In CTC, production takes place as well they sell it to the retailers and wholesalers and also directly to the customers from the company’s sales outlet PARTNERS OF THE COMPANY CTC is a partnership firm consisting of two managing partners and they are Mr. Muhammad and Mr. M. A Abdul Aziz. Other partners are Mr. M. A Abdul nazar Mrs. M. A Rukhiya Mrs. M. A Soubeena Mrs. M. A Asiya Mrs. M. A Salina Mrs. M. A Najeena Mr. M. A Abid Mr. M. A Ramshid Mr. M. A Rajay Mrs. M. A Nargees Mr. M.A Hareer KEY TO SUCESS Key to success is designing and producing products that meet the market demand. In addition to this the company also ensures total total consumer satisfaction. If these goals are achieved it will become a profitable sustainable company. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE COMPANY It is an industry with more than 130 years of experience Engaged in the production of wide range of products It has a capacity to meet huge requirements any point of time Highly experienced management with perfect knowledge about market and its products. QUALITY POLICY OF THE COMPANY ATMOSPHERIC HARMONY: Terracotta tiles created a rhythemetic harmony with the atmosphere where it is used. Its natural elements are harmful to arthritis patients. The tiles also add elegance to the concrete buildings and act as a heat insulation aid, that is why even five star hotels are turn in to clay tiles. ECO-FRIENDLINESS: In CTC innovative and energy saving manufacturing technologies a re used to manufacture eco-friendly products combining economy with ecology. The beautiful glazes of terracotta tiles are softer and more sensitive to scratches and wear and tear than tiles made from normal porcelain or ceramic material.Our clay roof tiles allow for ongoing ventilation that extracts the moisture that otherwise could cause mild dew, rote and overtime the collapse to substructure. VARIETY: We provide different plain tiles and pan tiles. Architects, Builders and roofing specialists etc with their join efforts produces different varieties of tiles according to the requirements of consumers DURABILITY * There are still number of tile roofed building that are 100 years of old where you find a few concrete building leaks within few years. Clay roof tiles are some of the most environmental friendly building material.This is due to long life expectancy that they are made of natural product and can be disposed off fully. NATURALITY Terracotta floorings, ceilings and wall cove rings, is designed with bright natural flair unlike any other things. QUEEN BRAND products are made attractive, colorful, and long-lasting in a functional aesthetically pleasing way. We offer carefully designed precision made roofing tiles comparable only to top quality porcelain product as ceramic floor tiles. FLEXIBILITY QUEEN BRAND tiles are designed for ease of use and versatility. For instance by means of pioneering concept for tile overlap allowing flexible tile to tile fit.As a result tile can be laid simply and quickly, saving time and labor cost. Each and every QUEEN tile is baked by a life time guarantee. PLANT LOCATION Calicut Tile Company is honored as the first among the best of tile companies. The plant is in the town of Feroke is connected with national highway 17. The factory is situated near the Chaliyar River. All infrastructure facilities are available near the company. ORGANISATIONAL CHART CHAPTER IV DEPARTMENTAL STUDIES PRODUCTION Department PRODUCTION DEPARTMEN T Clay is an important raw material used for tiles the quality of tiles depends up on its clay.Therefore the clay is tested before taking it for the production. There are mainly two types of clay namely plastic clay and lean clay. The tested clay is thoroughly mixed by using a machine called excavator. With the help of excavator the clay is sliced. After slicing, the clay is collected using the excavator in tray called trolleys. The sliced clay is then pushed into box feeder. Box feeder consists of 3 chambers and both type of clay will be there at first two chamber and both of this is mixed along with the sand in the 3rd chamber. Then the clay is moved into pan mill.Pan mill performs the crushing of clay and grinds together the different types of clay. Here the clay is crushed well using water. Clay in the form of flakes is passed into hi speed roller one. High speed roller one is an extension of pan mill and the clay is crushed well and then it is move to the high speed roller two where the clay is crushed further and reduce the time module or small pebbles contained in the clay. Then the clay is moved into de-airing pug mill and main purpose here is to remove the air content from the clay otherwise it would lead to breakage after it becomes in to a tiles.The clay is cut and passed to the press where different dice are available and the different shapes or types arise. Different types of tile formed are roofing tiles, flooring tiles, ventilator tiles, building tiles etc. In the press where roof tiles are formed with the help of a trimmer tiles are properly shaped and finished. The slabs are rubbed with oil which is a mixture of kerosene and rice-burn oil before putting into the press so as to dice smooth. The waste clay is recycled. The name of the clay, factory trade mark etc are marked on the tiles by providing necessary impression on the dice.Now the pressed tile contains 25% of water. To reduce the water content of green tile, it is dried in the open air where natural air ios able to enter directly. Artificial drying using external heating system is also rarely used. The tiles required to be dried for around 6-7 days during summer and 10-15 during rainy season. The well dried tiles are placed in the chamber of Hoffman kiln for baking. The kiln consists of different layers where the tiles can be put and heat is made possible to enter into it. Fire wood is used as fuel for burning at a temperature of 800 degree.The kiln works 24 hours a day through out and even on holidays. As the temperature is reached at a required level in one chamber, the fixing will be moved to the next chamber. After that the chamber is cooled and emptied. The burned tiles are moved to an open place where or nearer to kiln yard. Then it is moved to the stock yard where tiles are stocked. Different grade or classes are given to the tiles according to their quality and they are stored separately. It is from the stock yard, the tiles are dispatched according to the order placed. Here comes the end of the production process.PAN MILL PROCUREMENT OF TESTED CLAY DESPATCHING AGAINST ORDER SORTING AND STOCKING SPACE FOR DRYING HIGH SPEED ROLLER DE-AIING PUG MILL TILE FURNISHING TILE PRESSER BOX FEEDERS CLAY EXCAVATION ROLLER I ROLLER II KILN CHAMBER PRODUCTION PROCESS CHART PURCHASE DEPARTMENT PURCHASE DEPARTMENT Purchase department is one of the important departments in CTC. This department deals with 6the purchase of raw material such as purchase of clay fire woods, store good etc and the main function of the department is to invite tenders and quotation for purchasing raw material.Tenders are invited and they select those tenders which quotes the suitable price for the product. They just do not verify the price of raw material but also ensure about the quality of the product purchased. The main duty of the purchasing manger is to: Ensure continuous availability of raw material so that production doesn’t get stopped To reduce ultimate cost of finished product To ensure quality of raw material and there by quality of production Now we can look some of the important raw material which is purchased by the purchase department. CLAY Clay is one of the most important raw materials used for production.There are mainly two types of clay, plastic clay and lean clay. Before purchasing clay, purchase department takes the specimen of clay and test it using in different methods, like sand content test, burning test, and by the usual observations. Company usually collects clay fro the field of Mavoor, Cheruvadi, Karod, Edevanna, Areacode etc. FIREWOOD Fire wood is purchased from sub contractors of Irutty, Kodiyathur, Mavoor, Nilambur etc. The fire wood purchased from keep in it top of the kiln. The fire wood is unlocked in the firewood yard only after visual observation by firewood supervisor.From the above it’s clear that purchase department is one of the strong and back bones of CTC and its effective functioning is very m uch important for overall performance of CTC. WATER Water is one of the essential element of the tile it’s also essential for manufacturing. Water is prowled from the well and it’s purchased rarely. OIL AND KEROSENE It is another item as that of water which is less frequently purchased by the purchase department. Rice bran oil and kerosene In the ratio 2:10 are mixed and applied on the plugged slabs to avoid sticking of slabs each other.Kerosene is also used as fuel in generator. MARKETING DEPARTMENT MARKETING DEPARTMENT The marketing department of CTC is well developed and computerized. The main duty of this department is marketing and sales of queen brand. As we know that is one back bone of a business enterprice. The marketing department has its own value. It is controlled by sales manager and executive sales. DUTIES OF SALES MANAGER Responsibilities of various sales related decision like supplying the right quantity and quality product at right time. Management of cash receipt and paymentProper direction to the executive’s sales regarding collection of duties from customers and other related matters. Keeping proper records for purchase of fire wood. ACTIVITIES UNDER MARKETING DEPARTMENT Marketing activities are carried out and field sales executives explore the potential for sales of the product Appointing dealers Sales promotion activities like sponsorships, radio, banners & boards, calendar, trade fairs etc. Now the company has around 200 dealers all over India and they have or are mainly located in Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION The CTC adopts mainly 3 major channels of distribution their channels are as given below; Manufacturer Customers Manufacturer Dealer Customer Manufacturer Dealer Agent Customer QUALITY POLICY TO CONSUMERS 1. To provide dependence products that consistency meets customer’s expectations first time, on time, every time. 2. To recognize through systematic review pro cess that all over products and commitments are expression of quality 3.To constantly strive to achieve optimum customer satisfaction through on time delivery and defect fire parts with acceptable quality level by continuously improving our process and practices to the almost satisfaction of all our clients 4. To strive pure goals aimed at achieving excellence in the product that consistently meets or exceed customer expiations. PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT INTRODUCTION Human Resource department is concerned with the management of human resources. It is the sense of getting things done through people, is an essential part of every managers responsibilities. Many organizations find it useful.Many organizations find it useful to set up a specialist section to provide an expert service in the performance of HR functions. Today no member in the organization disagrees that â€Å"people are more valuable asset in the organization but in reality in many organization it is fou nd that this most valuable resources remains undervalued, undertrained, underutilized Fast changes are taking place in the business enterprise. An organization must have the ability to absorb these changes at a rapid rate than in the past, not simply to prove its competency alone but to justify its existence in the dynamic business world as well.All organization weather large or small must ensure themselves that they have the competent people capable of accepting these challenge. Personnel Management is â€Å"concerned with people dimensions in management. Since every organization is made of people, acquiring their service, developing their skills motivating them higher level of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization are essential to achieve their organizational objectives.This is true regardless the type of organization, government, business education, health, recreation or social action â€Å" In CTC employees are recruited m ainly through personnel interview, recommendation of present employee and through medium of publicity. OBJECTIVES OF CTC To establish and maintain good working atmosphere in the organization. Each employee is given certain objectives and give them amble support to achieve it. To achieve the goals of organization through human excellence. To maintain and increase the level of effectiveness of employers and there by their effective utilization.To provide motivation to the employees to work for the success of the organization. To have a better personnel structure in the organization that is the personnel department. PERSONNEL POLICIES AT CTC Pvt. Ltd. * Satisfied customers and motivated employees are of vital importance to CTC. The past 130 years is a good personnel policy followed by the firm it is seen not good or harmonious industrial relation maintained by the firm. The main three types of policy are staffing policy, wage and salary administration policy and the promotional policy. Other important personnel policies are below Each employee shall: * Understand his or her role. * Take responsibility. * Develop his/ her competence knowledge, skills and ability. * H. R STRUCTURE OF CTC Number of workers in CTC is around 300 which includes permanent and casual workers, among them 50 are skilled workers who are well trained and is called foreman. Attendance register are maintained in the factory to record the time spend by each worker in the factory, it also distinguish normal time from overtime. The working hour of the company starts from 8 am to 12 pm and 1 pm to 5 pm.But the kiln works for 24 hours a day and the operator for kiln is 4 shifts of 7 hours each. Convenient timing has made workers happy in the factory. Overtime workers have been paid double of wages of that day. This is done as they don’t want to spent for recruitment and training of new workers. If in the case of death, casual workers are selected as permanent workers. In administration level there are around 10 office staffs like production manager, personnel manager, finance manager etc. Wage calculations are fully computerized for fast result.The control of the organizational activities are in the hands of top level management, they are responsible for entire functions of the concerned persons. The total number of working days of CTC is around 305 days. Each worker is allowed a holiday during the week. The workers are not required to work on the first of the week that is Sunday. Within the production process there are many departments where employees are classified, they are CLAY FIELD In clay department, at a time there should be 21 employees. Their main duty is to load different type of clay. The main duty s to take the clay in to the excavator where the clay is sliced and their duty ends at the door step of press. The employees in the clay department are given a fixed remuneration of 6000 per month and they have to work for 8 hours a day. PRESS FIELD Here there sh ould be almost 11 employees who have to work hand in hand to achieve the target. Their work starts where the work of clay department ends. Their duty to receive the clay coming out of roller and put in to the press for making it as slabs and to other press where the slabs are press in to particular tiles from where the shape of tile is formed.Remuneration package is time rate and is paid 6000 per month for 8 hours a day. CHICK DEPARTMENT The duty here is to dry the pressed tile, that is to take the tile from press to the region where tiles are dried under direct sun light. Here 6 workers are working at a time and piece rate system is followed here for payment of wage. An employee should take 1400 tile which is treated as one work and for one work 200 rupees is paid. KILN DEPARTMENT At a time there will be 8 people working in a kiln, and it consists of two kilns which contain 28 and 24 rooms respectively.Here also piece rate system is followed and loading of 3000 tile is regarded as one work. BURNING SECTION It’s closely related with kiln department. It is the only one section were 24 works work is carried out. It is from here the kiln is burned. Their main duty is to regulate heat content according to the requirement of tile. Here mainly there are two workers who work on shift basis. They are given a fixed salary per month and double salary for working during holidays. REPAIRS SECTION Here repairs of machinery take place. Machines of the company are repaired within the firm.Here there are 7 workers including a foreman. They have a fixed remuneration. OTHERS There are certain workers who concentrate on loading of dried and finished tile to store rooms. There is no fixed number of employees in this work and depends up on requirement. They are also paid in piece rate form. Some workers are placed in those sections of bringing firewood which is required for burning. Here at present 9 workers are there and piece rate system is followed and for one work they are paid 230 rupees. There is a pottery department where one employee is working for the last 27 years.If he designs 5 tiles per day it is treated as one work and salary is given according to that. EMPLOYEE WELFARE The CTC employees receive multiple welfare facilities. Company provides all the possible facilities and amenities to the workers. Since file industry is labour oriented industry every problem connected with the workers will adversely affect the production and the reputation of the company. The management of this company thoroughly understands that and tries to solve all the problems connected with workers. Various labour welfare activities made by mgt to workers are; I. CanteenThe company is running a very good canteen inside the factory. With the help of this canteen the workers can save 85% of their food expense, that is, the company is providing subsidized food to their employees. II. Increment Every year increment of salary is given to the employees after their retire ment. The minimum service required for getting gratuity is 5 years. Computation of gratuity: Gratuity = Salary x Service x 15/ 26 Other than this the company provides contribution to ESI, PF providing annual leaves and casual leaves, home appliance loan, bonus, etc†¦ PROBLEM FACING THE PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT Though the company is well maintaining its relations with the unions and employees still the personnel department faces a few problems. However most of the problems are effectively bought under organized by various techniques as participation management system used in CTC. * Manpower of human resources may be thought of as the total knowledge, skills and creative abilities, talents and attitude of the total workforce of the organization. Management should consider the fact that of all M’s of management (Men, Money, Machinery, Materials, Methods and Minutes).The most important and the most complex resources are the humans. Hence, men are the most valuable asset of an or ganization rather than money or any physical equipment. Only human resource can ensure the effective utilization of all other resources to lead the business activities in to a success. * * * * * * * * * HOLIDAY WITH PAY IS 26th January Republic Day 14th April Vishu 1st May World Workers Day 15th August Independence Day 2nd October Gandhi Jayanthi 25th December ChristmasShivarathri Good Friday Milady sheriff Onam Navami Id-ul-fither CHART & DIAGRAMS 1. Different posts occupied by the employees in the organization. POSTS| NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| Manager| 3| 7. 5| Supervisor| 6| 15| Forman| 8| 20| Workers| 23| 57. 5| total| 40| 100| Interpretation: Out of the total employees more than 50% of them are unskilled workers who directly engage in the production of tiles. So, of the total population more than half of them are workers. 2. Number of year worked by the employee in the company? NUMBER OF YEARS| NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE| Below 8| 4| 10| -16| 3| 7. 5| 16-24| 16| 40| Above 24| 17| 42. 5| total| 40| 100| Interpretation: The pie diagram indicates that more than 80% of employees are with long term service. This indicates that labor turnover in the organization is not that high and is under control. 3. Have you received any special incentive till now? INCENTIVES| NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| Yes| 18| 45| No| 22| 55| Total| 40| 100| Interpretation: Out of the total employees in the organization 45% of them says or agrees that they had received incentive, while others contradicts to the statement and says ‘no’ to the question. . Are you satisfied with the present salary? SATISFIED| NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| Yes| 22| 55| No| 18| 45| Total| 40| 100| Table [ 1 ] Interpretation: The diagram indicates that almost half of the employees are satisfied with the salary and while others are not satisfied with the salary given. So management has to consider these factors well. 5. How do you rate the promotional policy adopted in the organization? RATING| NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| Excellent| 02| 05| Good| 14| 35| Average| 18| 45| Poor| 06| 15| Total| 40| 100| Interpretation:From the diagram it’s clear that as a whole, promotional policies are satisfactory since only 15% are not at all happy with the promotional efforts. Management should adopt such policies so that these 15% employees also show a positive sign. 6. Are you satisfied with the terms and conditions of the job? RATING| NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| Not at all| 06| 15| Up to a level| 24| 60| Fully| 10| 25| total| 40| 100| Interpretation: The diagram shows that employees are more or less satisfied with the terms and conditions of the job. Dissatisfaction level is comparatively lower. 25% is fully satisfied which is a good sign. . What is your opinion about relationship with management? RATING| NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| Friendly| 06| 15| Moderate| 28| 70| Strict| 05| 12. 5| No opinion| 01| 2. 5| t otal| 40| 100| Interpretation: 70% of the employees say that there is moderate relationship between employees and management. So the company is not following an autocratic type of structure. Here the chance of formation of informal organization is limited. 8. According to you which is the best motivating factor? RATING| NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| Monitory| 15| 37. 5| Non monitory| 06| 15| Both| 19| 47. | total| 40| 100| Interpretation: Since more than 50% of employees are unskilled workers, they can be primarily motivated with monitory incentives. From the diagram it is clear that employees give priority to the mixture of monitory and non monitory factors. 9. Have you received any fringe benefits from the company? | NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| Yes| 19| 47. 5| No| 21| 52. 5| total| 40| 100| Interpretation: From the diagram response is 47. 5% says ‘yes’ and rest stays with ‘no’. Company mainly provides fringe benefits to skilled and off ice staffs rather than to the semi skilled workers. 0. Are your grievances fully satisfied by the company? RATING| NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| Not at all| | | Up to a level| 32| 80| Fully| 08| 20| total| 40| 100| Interpretation: Since the relationship between management and employees are good their grievances are also satisfied to an extent. No one in the company is fully disappointed with the company. 11. How do you rate the safety and security measures adopted in the organization? RATING| NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| Excellent| 10| 25| Good| 18| 45| Average| 10| 25| Poor| 02| 05| total| 40| 100|Interpretation From the survey conducted it is clear that the company gives much importance for the safety and security measures and 70% of the population is very much happy with the companies policies and only 5% of them is dissatisfied. 12. Are you satisfied with the retirement schemes of the company? RATING| NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| Highly satisfied| 12 | 30| Satisfied| 22| 55| Dissatisfied| 06| 15| total| 40| 100| Interpretation: The company provides almost all retirement benefits provided by similar companies like provident fund, gratuity etc. rom the graph it’s clear that there is a mixed response from the part of employers. 13. Are you active in trade union activities? R ATING| NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| Active| 14| 35| Passive| 08| 20| Neutral| 18| 45| total| 40| 100| Interpretation: From the graph it is clear that participation of employees towards trade union activity is neutral, but it may not be so accurate as sample taken is small and employees may not reveal the truth. 14. What is your opinion about canteen facility? RATING| NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| Excellent| -| -| Good| 07| 17. | Average| 14| 35| Poor| 19| 47. 5| total| 40| 100| Interpretation: It is an area where management has to keep their eyes open as majority of employees are not happy with the canteen. So they should try to take s teps to improve the conditions. 15. What is your opinion about sanitary facilities? RATING| NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| Excellent| -| -| Good| 06| 15| Average| 21| 52. 5| Poor| 13| 32. 5| total| 40| 100| Interpretation: This is another area where management has to look up on, as employee satisfaction is a key area for the success of an organisation.CHAPTER VI PRODUCT PROFILE CHAPTER VI SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT ANALYSIS Identification of SWOTs is essential because subsequent steps in the process of planning for achievement of the selected objective may be derived from the SWOTs. SWOT analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective. STRENGTHAn industry with one thirty years of experience and highly experienced management. Wide range of products. Focus on producing high quality tiles. Ability to meet huge requirements any point of time. Better superior-subordinate relation. WEAKNESS: Accounting methods are not scientific. Less focus on marketing activities. Transportation totally depends on private vehicles. Cost of tiles is little high as compared to other states. Conventional practice of fixing clay is used. OPPORTUNITIES: Go out for innovation. Opportunities for diversification of product. Try new technologies. * THREATS:Problem of absenteeism. Clay is not available readily Firewood and other fuel used for burning become costly and its availability is limited. Strikes lockouts effect the continuity of production process and there by overall productivity of firm. * CHAPTER VI FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS FINDINGS * CTC concentrates on production of tiles. Product of CTC is of high quality. Compare to other firms, price of CTC is lower. Employees are satisfied with the terms & conditions of the job as well as with the management. Productivity has increased in a slow rate. Less concentration on marketing of products.Since it is an organization with more than 100 years experience, it enjoys high degree of goodwill. Shortage of raw materials, firewood etc is great threat to the company. * SUGGESTIONS Demand for the product is high but the availability is low, so try to increase the production. Better salary should be given to employees so as to gain their confidence. Company should increase promotional efforts. Firm should concentrate on adding diversity to the product and then only it can with stand in the market. Reduce cost of production by using modern technologies Step should be taken to improve canteen and sanitary facilities.Find out an alternative source of energy for production. CHAPTER VII CONCLUSION CONCLUSION Calicut Tile Company, Kerala’s first tile company has really created revolution in this field. The QUEEN BRAND terracotta product s developed by CTC which really set the standards in the industry are widely acceptable to different culture, climate, and architectural tastes around the world. World is changing and modernization will have to be incorporated in every phase of working of the company and ways will have to be found to cope with competition and overcome the barriers of innovation.To conclude, management of CTC should make past emphasis and work effectively to supplement formal structures to tackle issues like product launching and cost reduction. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY Marketing Management : Philip Kotler Marketing Management : A. Vinodh H R management : Mammoria Personnel management : Edwin. B. Flippo Company Records Website : www. calicuttilecompany. com www. google. com

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Essay Rate of Literacy in Indian Women - 1175 Words

The rate of literacy in Indian women is dismal in comparison to India’s progress in other areas, as well as in comparison to other economically similar countries. In a country which is fast becoming one of the world’s largest superpowers, less than half of the female population is literate. This figure is much lower than that in China as well as in many low-income economies which are far behind India’s in terms of many other developmental achievements. The resultant social inequalities in India are robbing women of basic freedoms, reducing their quality of life as well as the quality of life of their families. It has been observed that a more educated mother provides better health and education for her children, and plays far less of a†¦show more content†¦If parents do decide to send a child to school, it has been observed that they would rather send a son. One reason for this is that labour division in India leaves women assuming a dominant role in do mestic work which does not require a formal education. The more concerning issues, however, come into play because in Indian culture the son’s role is much more instrumental to his parents’ future well-being than the daughter’s . The standard of patrilocal exogamy requires a woman to marry a man who lives outside of her village and reside there with him, keeping little contact with her biological family. Parents know that any investment made in a daughter’s education will only be for the benefit of her husband’s family . Education allows opportunities in the urban sector, bringing a larger, more stable income, as well as a higher social standing. Parents prefer to send their sons to school since a son’s income and reputation will stay in the family and can provide elders with security as they reach old age . The norm in Indian culture is a hypergamous marriage, meaning it is unacceptable for an Indian woman to marry a man lower than she in social standing or a man who is less educated. To the contrary, the husband must be more educated than his wife. This makes it more difficult for an educated woman to find a husband. Moreover, the practice of paying a dowry (a gift, also known as a â€Å"groom’s-price†) also discourages parents fromShow MoreRelatedCultural Backgrounds And Community Attitudes Prevent Girls From Attending Schools And Thereby Act1322 Words   |  6 Pages1000 male students, in the Indian high schools is 3:1 (boy: girl). The primary reason for the decline in the birth ratio of females in India is mainly because of the intense treatments inflicted to the girls at the time of their birth. The lowest sex ratio in India is witnessed in Haryana, which reflects 877 females to that of 1000 males. 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(Dr. Dinesh Das 2012) According to Census 2011, there are 1.2 billion people in the country, out of which, about 833 million people live in rural areas. Census 2011 data on disability has not been announced yet United Nations observedRead MoreGender Inequality Between India And India1225 Words   |  5 Pagesdifficulty that issues males and females alike. A few argue that a few gender equality measures, vicinity guys at a disadvantage. However, when India s populace is inspected as a whole, girls are at a drawback in numerous crucial approaches. We proud Indians of twenty first century cheer in celebrations while a boy is born, and if it s far a lady, a muted or no celebrations is the norm. Love for a male baby is a lot in order that from the times immemorial we re killing our daughters at delivery or earlierRead MoreHuman Rights And The Human Right1389 Words   |  6 Pagesobtainable by every individual as women are the member of human family. The constitution of India also give authority the equality of rights of both gender. However, in the globe of women’s rights in India, there occured generally in many parts of India. As per sociology professor,Poonam Dhanda, Indian society people are generally assumed that male are dominate and superior in society.Though women in India have been given more rights as comparison to men, but the position of women in India is pathetic. TheRead MorePrivate Education in Rural India: Status and Opportunity1115 Words   |  5 Pagesdivision, and half dropped out by the age 14. According to this criterion, the 2011 census holds the National Literacy Rate to be around 74%.Government statistics of 2001 also hold that the rate of increase in literacy is more in rural areas than in urban areas, so we need to focus on rural areas and special attention goes to female education because it is still less than male literacy rate. Private Education in India: According to current estimates, 70% Population of India lives in rural areaRead MoreWomen Education And Human Diversity1568 Words   |  7 PagesWomen Education Varsha Kori(201201228) Term Paper for HM326 (Multicultural Education Human Diversity) Prof. Radha Parikh Winter 2014-2015 Table of Contents Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦....02 History and Present†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦02 Reasons behind Low Literacy Rate in Women†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..03 Pioneers in the field of Women Education†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.05 Measures taken by the Government†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...05 Conclusion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦

Friday, December 27, 2019

Death, Be Not Proud - 1661 Words

Death â€Å"Death, be not proud (Holy Sonnet 10)† by John Donne dramatizes the conflict between the perception and the reality of death, through the use of imagery. The speaker completely talks down the common perception of death, stating that even though many have called it â€Å"mighty and dreadful,† it really is not. The speaker compares death to sleep, which is generally an enjoyable thing. The personification of death is something that is popular in culture. Death is often depicted as a skeletal character in a black robe and scythe, also known as the Grim Reaper. Ultimately through death, one finds eternal life and death will cease to exist. In a way death is just another stage of life, but not necessarily the end. This poem is written in the form of a sonnet. A sonnet is composed of 14 lines written in iambic pentameter while also following a rhyme scheme. Iambic pentameter consists of 10 syllable lines, but Donne does not follow these standards to a T. For the mo st part this poem seems to be a Shakespearean sonnet, which starts with three quatrains and ends with a couplet. The rhyme scheme used here follows the pattern of ABBA ABBA CDDC AA (or EE), which is not the typical rhyme scheme that Shakespeare used when writing his sonnets. The couplet at the end is kind of a stretch, as the words â€Å"eternally† and â€Å"die† do not actually rhyme, unless the former is pronounced as â€Å"eternal-lie† or the latter is pronounced with a long â€Å"e.† Death has taken many forms and meanings overShow MoreRelatedDeath Be Not Proud1269 Words   |  6 PagesCoursework John Donne and Tony Harrison both discuss death in their poems. They were written in different eras and both poems have different views on this subject. John Donne had a rather privileged upbringing as he was born into a prosperous family and studied law at Oxbridge. Donne, however, was also unfortunate as he lost is father very early in his life and this could have affected his views on death. Tony Harrison on the other hand was born into a proud working class family in Leeds. Harrison’s poemRead MoreDeath Be Not Proud1025 Words   |  5 PagesGreg Mohnkern ID: L23191458 WRITING STYLE USED: Essay of poetry (MLA style) Thesis Statement: â€Å"Death be not proud† by John Donne personifies death, as its title aptly prescribes. Giving death human traits allows the writer to blast him with colorful images full of sarcasm and a tone of defiance. The ultimate message of the author provokes the human soul to resist the fear of death. Outline: Introduction: Thesis statement Transition: Discuss the writer’s life in relationshipRead More Death Be Not Proud Essay821 Words   |  4 Pagesto die? In the memoir Death Be Not Proud by John Gunther, his son Named Johnny is faced with this situation. At an early age, Johnny was found with a brain tumor, and struggles to survive. Johnny later died from the brain tumor. Johnny was loved by many people; much of whom tried his/her best to help Johnny through this ordeal. Although Johnny was faced with death, Johnny faced death with courage throughout the book. Even though Johnny was faced with death, he faced death with courage. Johnny showedRead MoreDeath, Be Not Proud by John Donne755 Words   |  4 Pages In John Donne’s sonnet â€Å"Death, Be Not Proud† death is closely examined and Donne writes about his views on death and his belief that people should not live in fear of death, but embrace it. â€Å"Death, Be Not Proud† is a Shakespearean sonnet that consists of three quatrains and one concluding couplet, of which I individually analyzed each quatrain and the couplet to elucidate Donne’s arguments with death. Donne converses with death, and argues that death is not the universal destroyer of life. He elaboratesRead MoreDeath Be Not Proud By John Donne1329 Words   |  6 PagesThe progression of societal beliefs regarding our approach towards death is dependent upon the changing nature of both cultural and historical contexts. In Donne’s Holy Sonnet ‘Death be not proud’ he uses second person narration to address â€Å"Death† as â€Å"thou†, â€Å"thee† and â€Å"thy†, death is not considered conceptually bu t anthropomorphised as the poems fundamental pride. In ‘Death be not proud’, we see how the rumination of death is shaped by Elizabethan values. Through the subverted Petrarchan structureRead MoreDeath, Be Not Proud, By John Donne1303 Words   |  6 PagesDeath and mortality are common themes widely used throughout poetry and other numerous works of literature. As well as this, death is a common occurrence in life, and though most people refuse to accept or acknowledge it, everyone must deal with it at some point in their lifetime. Whether it be the death of a family member, friend, or the final stages of your own life you will experience death in some way. In the poems, â€Å"Death, be not proud† and â€Å"Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night,† the speakersRead MoreDeath Be Not Proud By John Donne1908 Words   |  8 PagesJohn Donne’s poem, â€Å"Death Be Not Proud† (1633), is only one of the impressive poems in his collection: The Holy S onnets. In â€Å"Death Be Not Proud†, Donne expresses his Anglican beliefs as he addresses death’s fraudulent image and unjustified pride. Donne’s audience is death, but his poem is also intended for its  readers, who  Ã¢â‚¬Å"some have called [death] / Mighty and dreadful† (1-2). He begins the poem with a calm, conversational tone, but becomes more aggressive and expositive as his poem progresses.Read MoreJohn Donne Death Be Not Proud Analysis799 Words   |  4 PagesIs Death the Finale? Death has always been an intriguing topic in literature. Writers have been confounded by the idea of death and the unknown afterlife for centuries. Some people believe death is the end of all things because nothing can withstand it. In John Donne’s poem, â€Å"Death, be not proud,† the poet explains his personal understanding of death and its permanence. This poem is a narrative sonnet. Although this sonnet follows the rhyme scheme of an Italian sonnet (abba cddc effe gg), it alsoRead MoreAnalysis Of Death Be Not Proud By John Donne745 Words   |  3 PagesThe Holy Sonnet, â€Å"Death Be Not Proud† written by John Donne. He was the founder of metaphysical poems in the Elizabeth period and a religious figure. A Metaphysical Poetic style maybe philosophical and spiritual subjects that were approached with reason and often concluded in paradox. Metaphysical poets examined serious questions about existence of God the Holy Sonnet 10 was one of nineteen other Holy So nnets he wrote. Donne was famous for his poems of life, death, and religion. This poem was writtenRead MoreAnalysis Of Death Be Not Proud By John Donne1488 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout his poems, John Donne uses literary devices, such as imagery and diction, to discuss an overarching theme of death along with its religious implications, done most noticeably in the Holy Sonnet â€Å"Death Be Not Proud† and the lyrical poem â€Å"Hymn to God, My God, In My Sickness.† He also elaborates on the complexity of emotion, particularly in the metaphysical love poem, â€Å"The Flea.† Donne’s witty and clever style paired with his affinity for social and religious commentary allows his works to

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Fshore Oil Drilling Job - 1229 Words

Employees communicate with each other for effectively carrying out corporate responsibilities. As Robbins and Judge (2014) explains employee shares and conveys ideas and information through communication using four of its major functions such as â€Å"control, motivation, emotional expression and information† (p. 299). The offshore oil-drilling job is complex and needs engineering expertise. BP had undertaken deep-water oil drilling at the Macondo well using the Transocean offshore oil rig. It is expected that BP and its partner, Halliburton, Transocean needed detailed collaborative communication plan across between all the parties. Let us examine some of the critical communication before the disaster. BP engineer communicating that, the†¦show more content†¦36). Halliburton also presented to BP that seven centralizer is very likely to create â€Å"severe gas flow problem† (p. 36). Subsequent days there was a pressure test conducted by oil rig owners and tool p usher Wyman Wheeler, who did not believe explanations received. Another negative test performed and during the new negative test, the pressure came down on a different pipe and not for the drill pipe and the crew moved on with the rest of the process. According to BP, tool pusher Jason Anderson justifies the anomalous reading as the â€Å"bladder effect and had been seen this before† (p.6). The negative test expectation is not necessarily the same since there is no pressure from the drill pipe. The drilling crew prepared for the cement plug top of the oil well by reopening the blowout preventer and â€Å"pumping seawater down the drill pipe to displace the mud and spacer from the riser† according to the United States (2011), Deep water, (p.7) and the crew began discharging the spacer. At 9.20 pm on the fatal day before the explosion, Anderson responded to another colleague, the negative test â€Å"went well†. Just after Anderson is discussing with BP representat ives who praised the job, the explosion started with throwing mud. There will be check and balances on all levels for any well-designed process, but it is clear the communication did not happen at all levels. At the initial explosion, there was chaos, and no one knows the accurate count and evaluates

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Cell Membrane Structure And Phospoholipid Layer Biology Essay Example For Students

Cell Membrane Structure And Phospoholipid Layer Biology Essay A cell is the basic unit of life, and the cell membrane is an of import construction nowadays in all cells, irrespective of whether they are works cells or carnal cells. This construction is a critical constituent of any cell and it has a assortment of of import maps. Cell membrane maps include keeping the boundaries of the cells, therefore back uping the contents of the cell, keeping proper cell to cell contact, modulating the entry and issue of molecules in and out of the cell, etc. Therefore, to understand how the cell membrane manages to transport out this process, one needs to understand the cell membrane construction. Given below are the assorted constituents that comprise the construction of the cell membrane harmonizing to the Fluid Mosaic theoretical account. The first bed of cell membrane consists of a phosphid bilayer. The phosphate molecules are arranged in such a manner that the hydrophilic caputs are on the outside, while the hydrophobic fatty acid dress suits are on the interior, confronting each other. The dress suits of the molecule are said to be hydrophobic and that is why they points inside towards each other. This specific agreement of the lipid bilayer is for the intent of forestalling the entry of polar solutes, like amino acids, proteins, saccharides, etc. Therefore, the phosphate lipid bilayer is one of the chief factors responsible for modulating the entry and issue of molecules in and out of the cell. Outline1 Integral Membrane Proteins2 Other Elementss3 Cell Membrane Function4 Cell Membrane and Other Partss of a Cell5 What is a Cell Membrane?6 What is the Function of the Cell Membrane?7 Biological Membranes and the Cell Surface8 A9 Membrane Functions10 Membrane Structure Harmonizing to the Fluid Mosaic Model of Singer and Nicolson11 A12 A13 A14 Membrane Lipids15 Bilayer Formation16 Membrane Fluidity17 How Cells Regulate Membrane Fluidity18 Membrane Carbohydrates Glycolipids and Glycoproteins19 Membrane Proteins20 A21 An Example Asymetry of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Membranes22 A23 The Extracellular Matrix ( ECM ) and Plant Cell Walls24 Cell to Cell Attachments25 Tight Junctions and Desmosomes26 Cell Gaps27 Plasmodesmata A ; Gap Junctions28 Cell Communication29 Three Phases of Cellular Communication30 No affair where they are located, signal receptors have several general features31 Two Methods of Cell-Cell Communication32 G Protein receptors33 Tyrosine-Kinase Receptors Anoth er Example of a Signal Transduction Pathway34 Signal Transduction Shutdown Integral Membrane Proteins Integral membrane proteins are those proteins that are a portion of the cell membrane construction. They are present between back-to-back molecules of phopholipids. These hempen proteins present may cross the full length of the cell membrane. These molecules have of import maps, as they serve as receptors for the cell. Some of the proteins of the cell membrane may besides come in the cell. Sometimes, a portion of the protein molecule is inside and some of it is outside. These sort of protein molecules act as bearers for active conveyance of substances in and out of the cell. Some of these protein molecules form pores and therefore, allow fatty acids and other lipid indissoluble in H2O molecules to go through through. Furthermore, other built-in proteins serve as channel proteins every bit good to assistance in selective conveyance of ions in and out of the cell. Such molecules are seeable with the aid of an negatron microscopy. Other Elementss Certain other elements may besides be present along the length of the cell membrane, depending on the location and demands of the cell. These constructions include ball-shaped proteins, which are peripherally placed and are merely at times associated with the cell. These protein molecules may even be enzymes or glycoproteins. In such instances, either the cell will hold particular maps, or the location of the cell may necessitate it to execute certain specific maps. When speech production of works cell vs animate being cell, there is one of import construction that is to boot present most of the clip in carnal cells. These molecules are cholesterol molecules, which aid the phospholipids in doing the membrane impermeable to H2O soluble substances. These cholesterin molecules besides stabilize the membrane and supply the cell with a cushion consequence , which prevents it from enduring any major hurts due to trauma and impact forces. Cell Membrane Function Cell membrane is the outer covering of a cell, which keep the ingredients of a cell integral. Apart from that, there are assorted other maps, that are carried out by this construction. Read on Cell Membrane Function It is a common fact that cells are the cardinal edifice blocks of life. These constructions form the basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. While some beings, like, bacteriums are one-celled, most other life things are multicellular. In instance of multicellular beings like worlds ( an grownup homo has about 100 trillion cells in the organic structure ) , there are assorted types of cells, which are assigned different maps. Each cell is made of intricate constructions, which forms an interrelated web, which strives to transport out the map of that cell. As the nature of the map of the cells differ, the maps of assorted parts of the cells excessively differ. Let us take a expression at the assorted parts of a cell, particularly, the cell membrane and cell membrane map. Cell Membrane and Other Partss of a Cell Basically there are two types of cells eucaryotic and procaryotic. While workss, animate beings, Fungis, protozoons, etc. possess eucaryotic cells, procaryotic cells are found in bacteriums merely. The difference between the two types of cells lie in the fact that procaryotic cells do non hold karyons ( and/or some other cell organs ) and are relatively smaller, as compared to eucaryotic 1s. Equally far as eucaryotic cells are concerned, the basic construction includes parts like DNA, ribosomes, cyst, endoplasmic Reticulum ( both rough and smooth ) , Golgi setup, cytoskeleton, chondriosome, vacuole, centrioles, lysosome, cytol, plasma membrane and cell wall. While works cells have a big vacuole and a definite cell wall, carnal cells lack cell wall but some may hold really little vacuoles. Animal cells do non hold chloroplasts excessively. This article is about cell membrane, which is besides known as plasma membrane or plasmalemma. Scroll down for information about cell membrane map . Y2k (1015 words) EssayMake membrane less fliuid Solid at room temperature Bad Fats that geta arterias ( carnal fats ) Unsaturated fatty acids Some C=C bond ( dual bonds ) Bent concatenation maintaining dress suits apart Make membrane more fluid Polyunsaturated fats have multiple dual bonds and decompression sicknesss Liquid at room temperature Good Fats which do non choke off arterias ( vegetable fats ) Cholesterol Reduces membrane fluidness by cut downing phospholipid motion Hinders solidification at low ( room ) temperatures How Cells Regulate Membrane Fluidity Desaturate fatty acids Produce more unsaturated fatty acids Change tail length ( the longer the tail, the less unstable the membrane ) Membrane Carbohydrates Glycolipids and Glycoproteins Face off from cytol ( on exterior of cell ) Attached to protein or lipid Blood antigens Determine blood type edge to lipoids ( glycolipids ) Glycoproteins Protein Receptors Provide specificity for cell-cell or cell-protein interactions ( see below ) Membrane Proteins Peripheral Proteins wholly on membrane surface ionic and H-bond interactions with hydrophilic lipoids and protein groups can be removed with high salt or alkaline Built-in Proteins Possess hydrophobic spheres which are anchored to hydrophobic lipoids alpha spiral more complex construction A An Example Asymetry of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Membranes Apical surface selectively absorbs stuffs Contains specific conveyance proteins Lateral surface interacts with adjacent cells Contains junction proteins to let cellular communicating Basal surface sticks to extracellular matrix and exchanges with blood Contains proteins for grounding A The Extracellular Matrix ( ECM ) and Plant Cell Walls In carnal cells, the ECM is a mish-mash of proteins ( normally collagen ) and gel-forming polyoses The ECM is connected to the cytoskeletin via Integrins and Fibronectins Plant Primary Cell Walls for a stiff cross-linked web of cellulose fibres and pectin a fibre complex Fiber complexs resist tenseness and compaction Plant Secondary Cell Walls are farther strengthened w/ Lignin Secondary Cell Walls is fundamentally what comprises wood Cell to Cell Attachments Tight Junctions and Desmosomes Tight Junctions are specialised proteins in the plasma membranes of next animate being cells they sew together next cells organize a watertight cell Desmosomes are specialised connexion protein composites in animate being cells they stud cells together they are attached to the intermediate fibres of next cells Cell Gaps Plasmodesmata A ; Gap Junctions In works cells, Plasmodesmata are spreads in the cell wall create direct connexions between next cells May contain proteins which regulate cell to cell exchange organize a uninterrupted cytoplasmatic connexion between cells called the symplast In carnal cells, Gap Junctions are holes lined with specialised proteins let cell-cell communicating ( this is what coordinates your pulse ) Cell Communication In multi-cellular being, cells can pass on via chemical courier Three Phases of Cellular Communication Reception A chemical message ( ligand ) binds to a protein on the cell surfaceA Transduction The binding of the signal molecule alters the receptor protein in some manner. The signal normally starts a cascade of reactions known as a signal transduction tract Response The transduction pathway eventually triggers a response The responses can change from turning on a cistron, triping an enzyme, rearranging the cytoskeleton There is normally an elaboration of the signal ( one endocrine can arouse the response of over 108 molecules No affair where they are located, signal receptors have several general features signal receptors are specific to cell types ( i.e. you wo nt happen insulin receptors on bone cells ) receptors are dynamicA the figure of receptors on a cell surface is variable the ability of a molecule to adhere to the receptor is non fixed ( i.e. it may worsen w/ intense stimulation ) receptors can be blocked Two Methods of Cell-Cell Communication Steroid Hormones can come in straight into a cell bind to receptors in the cytosol hormone-receptor complex binds to DNA, bring oning alteration testosterone, estrogen, Lipo-Lutin are illustrations of steroid endocrines Signal Transduction transition of signals from one signifier to another Very complicated tracts all are different! G Protein receptors G-proteins are called as such because they have GTP edge to them Receptors have inactive G-proteins associated with them When the signal binds to the receptor, the G-protein alterations form and becomes active ( into the on constellation ) The active G-protein binds to an enzyme which produces a secondary message Frequently, 2nd couriers activate other couriers, making a cascade G-protein signal transduction sequences are highly common in carnal systems embryologic development human vision and odor over 60 % of all medicines used today exert their effects by act uponing G-protein tracts Tyrosine-Kinase Receptors Another Example of a Signal Transduction Pathway Tyrosine-Kinase Receptors frequently have a construction similar to the diagram below: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/f06pm/tyro-kin02.jpg Part of the receptor on the cytoplasmatic side serves as an enzyme which catalyzes the transportation of phosphate groups from ATP to the amino acerb Tyrosine on a substrate protein The activation of a Tyrosine-Kinase Receptor occurs as follows: Two signal molecule binds to two nearby Tyrosine-Kinase Receptors, doing them to aggregate, organizing a dimer The formation of a dimer activated the Tyrosine-Kinase part of each polypeptide The activated Tyrosine-Kinases phosphorylate the Tyrosine residues on the protein The activated receptor protein is now recognized by specific relay proteins They bind to the phosphorylated tyrosines, which cause, you guessed it, a conformation alteration. The activated relay protein can so trip a cellular response One activated Tyrosine-Kinase dimer can trip over 10 different relay proteins, each which triggers a different response The ability of one ligand adhering event to arouse so many response tracts is a cardinal difference between these receptors and G-protein-linked receptors ( that, and the absence of G- proteins of class ) Abnormal Tyrosine-Kinases that aggregate without the binding of a ligand have been linked with some signifiers of malignant neoplastic disease Signal Transduction Shutdown Most signal-transduction/hormone systems are designed to close down quickly Enzymes called phosphatases take the phosphate groups from secondary couriers in the cascade This will close down the signal transduction tract at least until another signal is received

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Mary Reynolds Essays - International Relations, Communism In Russia

Mary Reynolds April 24, 2000 Dr. Boitano U.S. Foreign Policy The Rise of the Superpower Russia and the United States grew to become the main superpowers in the arena of international relations during a specific time in history. The emergence of these two countries as superpowers can be traced back to World War II. In order to be a superpower, a nation needs to have a strong economy, an overpowering military, immense political power, and a strong national ideology (Aga-Rossi 65). It was World War II, and its results that caused each of these countries to experience such a plurality of power (Ovyany 97). Before the war, both nations were fit to be described as great powers, but it would be incorrect to say that they were superpowers at that point. To understand how the second World War impacted these nations so greatly, the causes of the war must be examined. The United States gained its strength in world affairs from its status as an economic power. Prior to the war, America was the world's largest producer. During the same time in Russia, Stalin was implementing his "five year plan" to modernize the Soviet economy. From these situations, similar foreign policies resulted. It is important to discuss the leaders and their strategies during this time to understand how these countries became superpowers. Many U.S. citizens believed that America entered the war in order to save capitalist investments in Europe. Whether this is the case or not, President Roosevelt signed the Neutrality Act of 1935, making it illegal for the United States to ship arms to the antagonists of any conflict (Aga-Rossi 68). The act also stated that the antagonists could only buy non-armaments from the U.S., and even these were only to be bought with cash (Aga-Rossi 69). In contrast, although Stalin was interested in European affairs it was only to the extent to keep Russia out of war. Stalin wanted to consolidate Communist power and modernize the country's industry. The Soviet Union was committed to collective action for peace, as long as that commitment did not mean that the Soviet Union would in turn face a potential Nazi attack. Examples of this can be seen in the Soviet Union's attempts to achieve a mutual assistance treaty with Britain and France. These treaties, however, were designed more to create security for the West, as opposed to keeping all three signatories from harm. At the same time, Stalin was attempting to polarize both the Anglo-French, and the Axis powers against each other. The important result of this was the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact, which petitioned Poland and allowed Hitler to start the war (Divine 31). Another side-effect of Stalin's policy of playing both sides was that it caused incredible distrust towards the Soviets from the Western powers after 1940. Author Robert A. Divine adds, "this was due in part to the fact that Stalin made several demands for both influence in the Dardanelles, and for Bulgaria to be recognized as a Soviet independent" (31). The seeds of superpowerdom lies here, R.J. Overy wrote "stability in Europe might have been achieved through the existence of powers so strong that they could impose their will on the whole of the international system, as has been the case since 1945" (215). At the time, there was no power in the world that could achieve such a feat. Britain and France were in sovereign decline, and more concerned about colonial economics than the stability of Europe. Both imperial powers assumed that"empire-building" would necessarily be an inevitable feature of the world system. German aggression could have been stifled early, had the imperial powers acted simultaneously. The memories of World War One, however, were too powerful and the general public would not condone a military solution at that point (Morrison 35). After the economic crisis of the 1930's, Britain and France lost much of their former international standing. As the world markets plummeted, so did their relative power. The two nations were determined to maintain their status as great powers, without relying on the U.S. or Russia for support of any kind. They went to war only because further appeasement would have only served to remove from them their little remaining world standing and prestige (LeFerber 127). The creation of a non-aggression pact between the Soviet Union and Germany can be viewed as an example of imperial decline as well. The common desire of many of the great European powers for a change in the world state system meant that either a massive war would have to be